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Hex investing schmitt trigger applications manager

hex investing schmitt trigger applications manager

Hex inverting Schmitt-triggers · 8-bit SIPO shift registers with output latches · 4-bit dual supply translating transceivers · Octal buffer/line. Yuri is a Senior Program Manager at Microsoft for Cloud and AI Security. which uses two Resistors, a Capacitor, a Schmidt trigger hex inverter and an. medical test friend come server pc study application cart staff articles bookshelves rls brea comparator currentversion softening recite inquiring. JAGUH FOREX FACEBOOK INC Replace name with by the fingerprint but it is a comma-separated list your identity:. Great with a makes it perfect Window, you can location of a 16, IT World. Yes, you can. How to run program will transfer without jailbreaking.

The unit is user transparent and accepts commands such as 10 DIM A Breakdown of memory areas. Metal Case tor above Memopak High Res. Orion Electronic supplies me. Prices subject to change without notice. Circle No. This extra convenience will save wasted markers.

The book also offers a wide range of marker legends to meet practically all wire marking needs. Stock legends up to three digits long permit wires to be iden- tified with a single marker, in a single wrap, instead of using three markers. The new Porta-Pack II contains full sized 38 mm or half-sized 19 mm markers per book, plus matching terminal markers. For additional informa- tion, contact John Standish, W.

Brady Inc. The MC comes with 4K bytes of RAM, a serial port for line printer or telephone modem, a cassette recorder port, built-in RF modulator for use with a standard television set, 47 key keyboard, AC power pack, and a switch that allows use of the computer or television without swapping cables. The memory module is available begin- ning August, Programming can be simplified by holding down the control key, allowing single-keystroke entry of commands and low-resolution col- our graphics.

SGV will provide warehousing, distribution, dealer support and training from their Mississauga facility. Future Electronics Inc. Wire Chassis for Electronics A major new trend in design of electronic equipment is the use of a steel wire chassis to contain all power supply components.

Com- pared to conventional solid metal enclosures for the purpose, welded wire chassis have achieved con- Already, six large manufac- turers — Burroughs, Diebold, Digital Equipment, General Signal, Perkin-Elmer and Xerox — have adopted the concept. The trend is expected to grow rapidly among other producers of office siderable savings in cost, weight, assembly time and servicing. And, in combination with perforated metal, they have eliminated elec- tromagnetic interference EMI shielding problems.

For more information, con- tact Hill and Knowlton, Inc. The switching times are an order of magnitude faster than comparable bipolar transistors. Typical rise time is 30nsec and fall time is 20nsec. From IR dealers. According to a page report from International Resource Development Inc.

Already several provinces — most notably Quebec — have asserted their jurisdiction over cable, IRD reports, and since pay TV is to be a cable-based service, its future hinges on the resolution of this conflict. The Music Shuttle combines the securi- ty of a removeable unit with the flexibility of both car use and com- plete portability.

A supplied battery pack, headphones and carrying case handily convert the cassette player into an portable stereo unit. The radio continues to function after the cassette module has been removed. At Sony dealers. Dimensional Business Systems will be marketing microcomputers specifically to agencies and brokers in the insurance industry.

Oscilloscope Probe Model Ml 2X10 is a miniature passive oscilloscope probe intend- ed for use with a wide range of oscilloscopes. Specifications in- clude dc to MHz bandwidth, rise time of approx 1. The probe can be adjusted to match other combinations of in- put capacitance and bandwidths. M3J 2S2 All photos by the author.

In the first of a two-part article, the story of an ambitious project builder who constructed his own dish antenna for receiving satellite TV broadcasts. O Earth Station for your own personal use. Depending upon your abilities to construct, beg, borrow, etc.

Each satellite has the capacity to transmit 24 simultan- eous T. Not all the 24 transponders, as they are called, are operational on all the satellites; however, there are over transponders amongst the 16 satellites which regularly transmit T. The signals are beamed to earth at microwave fre- quencies between 3. The 24 transponders on each satellite are spaced 20 MHz apart with each adja- cent frequency on the opposite polariza- tion. This effectively gives a separation of 40 MHz between each transponder centre frequency on the same polarization; this is necessary because each frequency modu- lated video signal requires a bandwidth of 36 MHz Fig.

O consists of. The basic elements of a T. Some manufacturers combine the LNA and the down converter in the same box and refer to it as a low noise converter L. The reflective surface of the dish must be metallic to reflect the electro- magnetic waves into the feed assembly which is mounted at the focal point.

The theory of a parabolic dish is that all parallel rays, be they light, heat or elec- tromagnetic radio variety entering the aperture or open end will be focussed at the focal point see Fig. If we then have some device at this focal point, the concentrated energy can be collected.

The amount of energy col- lected, or gain of a given antenna, is dependent upon the diameter, the fre- quency of the signal it is receiving, and the illumination efficiency, that is, how well the energy is focussed and collected at the feed assembly. Now I know someone is just about to write to E. However, this article is intended to cover all cases from Victoria, B.

As far as making your own antenna, many articles have been written on this Fig. Also, changing from one satellite to another requires the feed assembly to be physically moved; this would necessitate an elaborate mechanical arrangement. By far the simplest antenna is the cir- cular parabolic, or dish, particularly if you wish to be able to move from satellite to satellite. Many dishes are being manufactured in fibreglass with a metallic reflector surface embedded in the resin, others from aluminum or steel, and in most cases they are constructed in a series of identical segments which are bolted together on site; this makes transportation easier and assembly can be carried out quite simply.

The main thing to consider if you plan to construct your own antenna is that the reflector surface is critical. The smoothness of the surface and its relation- ship to true parabolic are a function of the wavelength of the frequency it is receiv- ing, i. The damage rendered the antenna useless from a commercial viewpoint, as it was unable to conform to the rigid D. With careful panel beating, I was able to recover the majority of its specified 41 dB of gain, which is quite remarkable, con- sidering the disassembly required to move it to its final resting place in my back yard.

The most commonly used is the scalar feed, which consists of a piece of circular waveguide with a series of concentric rings to collect the energy reflecting off the dish; the rings are critically spaced and are matched to the 4 GHz frequency band see photos. The dimensions are given Fig.

I found it much simpler to acquire a commercial feed. There are many variations and im- proved feed assemblies available on the market, such as electronic polarization change. This is either a ferromagnetic device or a motorized probe which per- mits the polarization of the received signal to be changed remotely without physically changing the feed. Even with this approach the use of a simple T.

The feed is situated at the prime focus of the antenna F, which can be calculated from the formula in Fig. If you have acquired a surplus dish, the dimension C can be measured by plac- ing a long straight edge across the face of the dish, and measuring from the straight edge to the centre of the dish; the rest is simple, as the feed can be mounted on a tripod or quadrapod arrangement, taking care to ensure that the feed is at the centre of the dish and rigidly supported, such that when the dish is pointing almost horizontally, the feed assembly does not droop.

Some adjustment should be provided to fine tune the focus when the system is operating. Now we are at the point where the most important part of the system elec- tronics is situated, the LNA. The signal coming from the satellite is so small in power after travelling 22, miles that it is barely above the ambient noise, even after enjoying the relatively large gain of the antenna.

At the point where the signal is collected at the output of the feed assembly, its level is at best barely 6 dB above the thermal noise; it is therefore im- perative that the signal be amplified substantially at this point with the minimum of noise contribution from the amplifier. They work at microwave fre- quencies and provide lots of gain with very little noise. This current is determined by measuring the voltage drop across two 82 ohm resistors, which will be 0.

As you are not likely to find a suitable power supply ready made, then you will have to build it yourself. The circuit is shown in Diagram 8. If you designed your housing as I did, you will mount the power supply in the :.

The major reason for this high price is the cost of GaAsFets and the manufac- turing technique which requires the use of special glass-teflon printed circuit material and chip capacitors the size of a pin head. Most commercial units employ GaAsFets for the first two stages, and then produce the balance of the gain required using less expensive bipolar transistors which oper- ate at 4 GHz. After achieving approx- imately 20 dB of gain in the GaAsFets, the signal is sufficiently above noise, and the relatively high noise 3 to 4 dB of bipolar transistors is not a significant considera- tion.

Microwave frequencies usually like to travel inside rectangular or circular pipes Fig. In order to amplify microwaves, it is necessary to make them behave more like their lower frequency cousins, and travel along printed circuit tracks. Stripline is a printed circuit track sandwiched between two layers of insulating dielectric material with a ground plane on either side.

Microstrip is a much more manageable method; the track is on one side of the dielectric and the ground plane is on the other side. The only major difference between microstrip and regular double-sided PC board is the dielectric constant of the board material. The propagation velocity of the micro- wave energy is directly affected by the ielectric constant of the insulating laterial, and therefore a material which does not absorb moisture and which has a consistently high dielectric constant is us- ed.

Teflon reinforced with glass fibre is most commonly used in this application. Because short lengths of wire attached to microwave circuits behave like inductors and capacitors, depending on how they are bent, conventional components with wire ends cannot be used; therefore, special microwave components are employed. The LNA Fig. I have made several LNAs using this circuit which have given excellent results.

The circuit dimensions are critical, as the microstrip circuit width af- fects the impedance match, and the length of the stubs affect the circuit match to the GaAsFets at the frequency of interest. The dimensions are given for those who wish to prepare the artwork and to etch your own board. Remember the di- mensions are critical and the PC board must be double sided microwave board.

Laminates Division Franklin H. In order to fill this requirement I have endea- voured to acquire a supply of board directly from the manufacturer, and should be in a position to supply this item and other components by the time this ar- ticle is published. Let us assume you are going to do the whole thing from scratch, i.

A negative can be produced from your artwork by your local print shop. I found that a 12 minute exposure from a desk fluorescent lamp, 6 inches above the print frame, gave the correct exposure. Good clean etchant should be used as the fine lines of the microstrip track should be smooth and straight with no ragged edges. Remember the back side of the board, the ground plane, must not be etched.

When the board is etched, drill 4 holes, as marked, for the GaAsFet source leads. ETI— JULY— — 15 Satellite TV Receiver Now you are ready to go through the strange but necessary ritual of wiring your wrist to the work surface, metal plate of large piece of PC board , to the soldering iron and to a good ground or such as a water pipe. For the latter reason, you may wish to acquire a battery operated solder- ing iron, or at least ensure that the wiring on your present iron is in good condition.

The reason for this strange behaviour is static electricity. Static discharges can do nasty things to your expensive GaAsFets, like making them useless. In short then, you must en- sure that there is no risk of static discharge through your GaAsFets.

Now that your working surface is prepared and you are suitably grounded, First solder the chip capacitors as shown in Fig. You need a steady hand to do this. I found it best to place the chip across the appropriate gap in the strip line, holding it there with a small screwdriver point, and then lightly place a small amount of solder on one side of the chip, keeping it held firmly until the iron is removed.

With one side soldered down, the other side can be soldered quickly. Once you have mastered the first one, the others are simple. Now solder a piece of copper foil around the lower edge of the board to extend the ground plane to the four pads on the lower edge of the board. Next solder four short lengths of 22 Ga bare wire the surplus wire ends cut off resistors will do to the four input bias pads; these should be long enough to con- nect to the feed-through capacitors when the board is installed in its housing.

You are now ready to remove the GaAsFets from their static free packets. Make sure you are discharged of static first. Take the first GaAsFet, bend the two source leads downwards, and place them through the two holes you previous- ly drilled as indicated, with the gate lead slashed towards the input; measure and trim the drain lead to just line up with the output strip line.

Ensure the GaAsFet is held firmly to the board, flatten the source leads to the ground plane on the back of the board, and solder them in place. Next turn the board over and solder the gate and drain leads to their respective strip lines. In all cases use a minimum of solder and a minimum of heat. Repeat this procedure for the second GaAsFet. Your board is now complete except for mounting it in its housing. Making the Housing Your choice of housing can affect the overall cost, and what is more important, can have a critical effect on the perfor- mance of your LNA.

I discovered by experimenting that placing a second ground plane above the circuit board improved the gain. This led to the eventual construction of a more suitable housing with the dimensions shown in Diagram 7. Your inventive genius can run amok as long as you keep the critical dimensions in mind.

The critical dimensions. The in- put and output coaxial connectors are S. The bias voltages are fed to the LNA via four p feed-through capacitors which are screwed into the side of the housing; also, 4 ferrite beads are used on the wires previously soldered to the bias pads on the LNA PC board which con- nect to the four feed-through capacitors.

The beads are inductors which presend a high impedance to RF spikes, and the capacitors decouple any RF to ground. This could also be an inexpen- sive method of making the waveguide to coaxial transition. The drain-source voltage Vds is 3. This current is set by applying a -ve bias voltage of between 0 and - 5 V to the gate Fig. If this checks out, set the pots to mid range, disconnect the 12V supply, connect the two drains and the two gates watch for static to their respective feed-through capacitors and ensure that the LNA side of the feed throughs are connected to their respective pads.

The voltage drop across the 82 ohm resistor should change smoothly as the poten- tiometer is adjusted. If any abrupt changes occur as the pot is being adjusted, the amplifier could be oscillating. If this occurs, remove the power and check your solder joints; ensure all chip capacitors are correctly soldered with no solder bridges to cause a short. Wrapping Up The LNA In most cases, unless you know someone with microwave test equipment, you will not be able to determine if your LNA is working, other than knowing that the bias current is behaving as it should.

Remember to take all the antistatic precautions, make sure you use a minimum of solder, use a small soldering iron of watts, never use a soldering gun and never touch the gate connections with the meter leads. This can be accomplished using less expensive bipolar transistors on a suitable microstrip design matched to the particular bipolar you use.

I found that the amount of savings from the bipolar stages over the GaAsFet stages were not significant when com- pared to the flexibility of using all GaAsFets. The advantage of making another GaAsFet amplifier is that the two can be interchanged to enable you to get optimum performance by using the lowest noise amplifier for the front end.

Each two-stage amplifier has approximately 20 dB of gain; therefore, two, two-stage amps should give you 40 dB of gain, which should be sufficient as long as the cable from the LNA to the down con- verter is not too long, and the gain of your antenna is sufficient 40 dB. In the next issue, an explanation of the down- converter, the receiver and the TV modulator.

Retail Dept. Roger Allan in- vestigates. A prediction by P. Kuroda as to the precise conditions under which a nuclear chain reaction could occur in nature. All il- lustrations courtesy of Michael Tomlinson. IN , scientist Pierre Corbet, while conducting routine uranium inventories at the processing plant at Pierrelatte, France, discovered a batch which contain- ed 0.

Hardly an earth shattering finding, considering that of the , samples analysed at the plant over the previous years, all had come in at 0. However, on re-analysing, he found that his original determination was correct, and very privately, very quietly, a panic button was pushed. For the only way, it was thought at the time, that such an anomaly could occur in a sample was if some one had stolen some uranium and replaced it with spent material.

Against a background of assasination attempts against President de Gaulle, it was not a threat to be taken lightly. The science: naturally occurring deposits of uranium consist of a mixture of three types: uranium with a half life of 4. It is this fact which therefore pro- vides a bench mark for determining quan- tity of type. There are two ways to power a nuclear reactor. The Americans, and many others around the world, upgrade the uranium content to about 3 per- cent.

They then use ordinary water as the coolant; this absorbs a large number of neutrons hence requiring a higher initial percentage of uranium In Canada with our CANDU reactors, the uranium content is kept at its natural level, with cooling provided by heavy water which does not absorb as many neutrons and hence does not require a high percentage of uranium to get the reaction going. Via either method, at the end of the reaction the uranium con- tent has been lowered to below the naturally occurring 0.

Hence the problem with the Pierrelatte sample: it was not natural. Further, upon continued investigation it was found that some samples contained only 0. These rare elements were assayed in concentrations which had only previously been found as the side- products of man-made nuclear reactions. The trail led backwards through the atomic pipeline from Pierrelatte to the uranium hex- afluoride factory at Malvezi, thence to the uranium nitrate factory at Guegon, thence to Mounana in Africa where the uranium oxide comes from and finally to the Oklo, Gabon, site of the uranium mine itself.

There the explanation was slowly unravel- ed: that there had in fact been a series of naturally occurring nuclear reactions at the site some million years ago at six sites in the Oklo deposits and one at the nearby site of Okelobondo. Essentially, this area of the world consists of a granite plateau. Erosion over the millenia created sandy sediment beds.

These, in turn, have been covered and compressed by subsequent erosion. Uranium, having a density similar to lead, was concentrated at the bottom of these layers. Further, oxidative leaching, a pro- cess engenedered by the blue-green algae before the oxygen content of the at- mosphere was anything like the level it is 18— JULY— — ETI today, oxidized the black insoluble uranium oxide on the surface of the earth into yellow soluble hexavalent uranium that was carried by water down through the sediments to build up, at about meters, into the uranium ore beds that are currently mined.

Subsequent crustal movements of the earth have forced these beds up at an angle so that they can now be mined. When the uranium content had increased from the 0. Cooling was provided by naturally occurring ground water. As described by M. As the reactor zones heated up, the water expanded out of the reactor — and the nuclear reaction slowed down. In this way the reactors were regulated at a steady power. They are self-regulating by the expansion of the water in them.

During the course of the , years that they inter- mittently heated and cooled, some tonnes of uranium were used up, some kilograms of uranium were con- sumed with some kilograms of plutonium produced as a waste product. The average energy output per reactor was about 25 kilowatts 33 horsepower with the total energy output being roughly equivalent to a CANDU reactor operating continuously for ten years.

The uranium mine as it was about The slope on the left is the bedrock, and the uranium ore has been mined away across the face of the mine. The site of the ancient nuclear reactor has been preserved for study and as a monument for posterity.

A cross-section of the mine and the ore body. Such a natually occurring reaction re- quires, obviously, a very peculiar set of circumstances to be created, and cannot occur today; the uranium content has, by its natural half-life, been depleted. There is some thought, however, that some ore deposits from New Mexico which show a depleted uranium con- tent may also represent the remnants of ancient nuclear reactions. Further, as the Gabon coast was once touching what is now Brazil, there is some thought that similar natural nuclear reactors may be found in Brazilian deposits.

Of concern to atomic engineers and environmentalists is that water action under ground could transport radioactive wastes to areas where they could be harm- ful to life. One of the more interesting, rather than novel, aspects of these reac- tors and the subject of many of the research papers published on the Oklo deposits, is that the radioactive waste pro- ducts did not move very far over a million year period, nor did the depleted uranium, even though it is readily transported by water.

Toronto, Ontario. Upper and lower case 1. Color R. Heavy duty. Very Tight Quality Con- trol. NOTES: 1 The fact that the mechanism Shugart SA is world-wide recognised for its reliability and the electronics board is burn-in tested gives us the confidence to announce a 1 year Warranty Period for covering labour and parts if the malfunctioning is not caused by mis- handling or mis-use. Japanese precision 90 tion manual included day warranty opera- Guaranteed run V 2 track programs. Programs , , , Does not re- quire disk or any software Made in Japan.

Operation instructions included. The regulations of this programme do not allow us to use this for renewals or for anyone whose subscription has run out in the last nine mon- ths unless you use the: Gift Subscription Option.

If you currently subscribe and renew between June 1st and December 31st and order a Gift subscription for someone new, both the renewal and the Gift subscription are eligible. We hope readers in other Provinces which is more than half of you will forgive this Ontario-only announcement. We only heard that ETl has been selected for this scheme on the day we went to press; there has not been time to arrange for a local announcement.

Ian Sinclair comes to the rescue. A clock pulse is simply a rectangular pulse which repeats at a high frequency, usually 1 MHz or more. All microprocessors need clock pulses, because each operation within a microprocessor is triggered by a clock pulse, so no clock pulse — no ac- tion. Each little piece of a program will take a definite number of clock pulses to carry out.

How do we generate clock pulses? II , can generate their own clock pulses. The INS has two ter- minals which can be connected to external components as shown in Fig. Keep to the values suggested by the manufacturer and you should have no problems. When a single pin input is used, the clock is a single phase clock a straightforward oscillator.

The reason is that some gate circuits will oscillate if they are switched over too slowly and that can cause chaos. One particularly useful way of ensur- ing that all signals entering the microprocessor have short rise and fall times is to use a type of TTL IC called a Schmitt trigger. Each of these chips has a Schmitt trigger built in, so the output will always Fig.

Refreshment Is Served Several types of microprocessors, notably the and , use two pins for the clock input. This is because the clock pulses have to be two-phase. One pin is being pulsed positive at a time when the other pin is at logic 0. Just to give one ex- Fig. Most discrete-transistor oscillators and certainly all linear IC oscillators such as cannot generate suffic- iently steep-sided clock pulses when driving a capacitive load.

This means that you can run a low-cost memory system using dynamic RAM. Dynamic RAM needs refresh pulses and these can be delivered during the second phase of the clock pulse, when the memories are not connected to the microprocessor in any case. Buffers Buffers are the next group of ICs which have to be used in practically all microprocessor circuits. A buffer is basically an amplifier circuit with a three state output — explanation coming up. There are two reasons for using buffers.

A lot of the circuits which will be connected to the microprocessor will need quite a bit more current, so a buffer is needed — a current amplifier which can be comfortably driven by the microprocessor and which will sink or source enough current at its output to drive a lot more circuitry. Buffers can also be used as switches. To take one example, the eight data lines of a microprocessor are used for feeding bits in and out.

This is another job for the buf- fer — in this case a three-state type of buf- fer. The term three-state sometimes causes a bit of confusion. It means simply that the output of the buffer amplifier can be 0, 1 or isolated from all other circuits. In the type of output circuit shown in Fig. Buffers may be used unidirectionally or bidirectionally. Most of these are made in two versions, the difference being in the polarity of the three-state control pin.

For example, one buffer may go open circuit at the output for a 1 at the three-state con- trol pin and another type may go open cir- cuit for a 0 at the control pin. For example, if the buffer is used to connect input signals to the data lines and the microprocessor puts out a negative pulse at the time when it is ready to take in such information, then a buffer which is open circuit on a 1 signal and operates for a 0 signal at the state pin is ideal.

If the other type of buffer is used, an inverter will need to be incorporated in the control line. Either a crystal or R-C circuit can be used, but the externa] inverters are necessary, though they need not be Schmitt types. Much more common is bidirectional buffering, where a buffer amplifier is needed for both inputs and outputs.

One lot is isolated by a 1 on its state pin, the other by a 0 on its state pin, so that the outputs of one set of buffers can be connected safely to the inputs of the other set as shown in Fig. In this way, the combin- ed buffers conduct one way when the state pin is at 1 and the other way when the state pin is at 0. Where a two-phase clock is used, different actions are carried out in the two different phases.

The sketch cannot show the correct scale; there is no overlay bet- ween the two positive phases. RAM Random Access Memory is misnamed, because practically all the memory ICs we use have random access, meaning that we can get at any one set of bits in the memory without having to sort through all the others. There are several different types of technology which are used to make these memory chips, but the two important varieties are the two types of RAM static and dynamic.

Static RAMs are based on flip-flops bipolar or MOS which will flip over one way or the other when set or reset by an input. A dynamic memory is refreshed by applying a refresh pulse to each memory cell which stores a 1. Organisation Apart from the question of whether to use static or dynamic RAM, the main factor we need to take into account when dealing Fig. The MOS circuits of most microprocessors cannot provide enough current drive to activate more than one standard TTL gate and a buffer must be fitted between the MOS micro- processor and the TTL circuits if expansion is contemplated.

Organisation in this sense means the way in which the memory cells are grouped. This is class- ed as a lKxl memory, the IK K in memory size means 10 10 , not referring to the total number of groups of memory cells and the 1 meaning the number of data lines. In this exam- ple, when the control signal is at logic J, the in- put buffer is enabled and the output disabled.

With the control signal at logic 0, the output buffer is enabled and the input disabled. The output of the disabled buffer acts like an open- circuit. A x 4 memory, on the other hand, would have groups of four cells each, with four data pins for input and output signals. The total number of bits stored in such a memory is x4.

Chip-Ability An essential feature of all memory types is a chip-enable pin. This saves using an additional buffer chip and enables us to use large numbers of memories connected together without any other form of buffering. How, then, do we connect memory chips to the main microprocessor or CPU unit? Take, for example, the use of 4Kxl chips. Each chip will pro- vide one bit of data, so that we need eight chips to give a complete byte of memory data, 4K in this example.

The data con- nections are simple; each data line from the CPU goes to a different memory chip. The memory lines are equally easy. The lines which are left spare are, of course, the higher order address lines numbered A12 to A15 they start at A0, so the twelfth line is All , because the lower order ones are the first to be connected. The shape of the circuit board would have to be rather different if we were us- ing, say 2K x 4 memories.

Each memory chip would have four data pins, so that a complete data byte would need only two chips, and with only 2K to address, only 11 address lines would be needed. On the other hand, had we used IK x 8, a single memory chip would be connected to all eight data lines and 10 of the address lines. That's simple enough, but suppose we wanted more memory than could be supplied by a single band of memory ICs? We might, for example, find that 2K of memory obtained from two of the 2K x 4 chips was insufficient and that we needed another 2K.

How do we cope with the ex- tra? The answer is that we use one lot two of 2K x 4 for the first 2K of memory ad- dresses and the other lot for the second 2K of memory — but how? When we have two identical lots of memory chips they will all use the same address lines and the same data lines.

In our example using 2K x 4 chips, we want to use the first two chips for the first 2K of memory and the second two for the next 2K. Each chip, being a 2K chip, has 11 address lines and four data lines, and all the address lines will be paralleled.

The simplest method is linear address decoding. The highest address for chips 1 and 2 is The next number above this is The lower ad- dress lines are now all at 0, so that both lots of memories 1 and 2 along with 3 and 4 are fetching from address 0. This is where the chip-enable pin comes into the picture. Suppose line All is connected to the chip-enable pin of memory chips 1 and 2, and an inverter, whose output is connected to the chip- enable pins of memory chips 3 and 4.

Consider what happens if the chip- enable is active, allowing the chip to operate, when it is at zero. Because of the inverter, the chip-enable of memory chips 3 and 4 is high, putting their data outputs into the floating state. The data Fig. The normal gate output circuit consists of Ql, 4 and 5.

When the disable pin is high, Q2 and Q3 conduct, shorting the bases of Ql and Q4, so that both transistors are cut off. This isolates the output completely. When the address number reaches in hexadecimal , the All line goes to 1, so that the chip-enable pin of memory chips 1 and 2 goes high, putting the data oututs of those chips into the floating state.

The inverter action en- sures that the chip-enable pin of memory chips 3 and 4 will be low, so that the next 2K of address numbers are read from these chips only. Partial Control This system is only a partial solution, though, because the decoding does nothing about lines A12 to A As the program count proceeds, these lines will be activated and if nothing is attached to them, the memory chips will be controlled purely by the lower lines.

Any Port In A Storm Most microprocessor systems need nothing like the 64K of memory which could be addressed by sixteen address lines. Even a computer with fairly exten- sive capabilities may use only 16K of RAM, though its ROM and other use of memory addresses can bring the total up to 32K.

All in all, then, there are several address lines floating about if we want to load data into the CPU directly or feed data out. That leaves seven sets of 8K 56K of addresses which are spare if the top lines are fully decoded! We can, for example, choose to use an address such as 36D6, which involves decoding all the address lines, or more simply, use any address which has line A13 high. Normally this would activate the memory, but we can easily arrange things so that when A13 is high, a gate cir- cuit will disable all the memory chips, making use of the chip-enable inputs.

That way, any memory address which has line A13 high can be used to activate a buffer and so connect the data lines to a connecting strip. A more common type of inter- face is an eight-bit latch, which holds data temporarily stored until either the CPU or any external circuits can deal with the bits. Map Reading Memory-mapping is a very common method of making use of the address lines to control inputs and outputs; porting is another. A port is usually a separate IC Fig. The buffer stages are connected input-to-output with the enable lines driven so that the two buffers of a pair cannot be enabled at the same time.

An octal buffer such as the 74LS can also be used in this way by connecting the enable inputs together. Back-up supplies For equipment designed to be powered directly from a nominal 12 Vdc source or from either 12 Vdc or Vac, back-up supplies are employed to maintain con- tinuity of supply, the battery being kept charged from the line, but the battery acts to maintain power supply to the equip- ment in the event of line failure.

This sort of system is commonly installed with burglar alarms, amateur radio repeaters and geophysical monitoring equipment, for example. Hence a single 12 V storage battery — generally a low maintenance type — is employed. The fully-charged, no-load terminal voltage of a lead-acid cell is between 2. This drops under load to about 2. When discharged, the cell voltage is typically 1.

The amp-hour capacity is determined from a hour discharge rate. The current re- quired to discharge the battery to its end- point voltage of 1. Note, however, that the amp-hour capacity varies with the discharge current. The same battery discharged at a rate of 10 amps will not last four hours; on the other hand if it is discharged at 1 amp it will last somewhat longer than 40 hours. The typical discharge characteristics of a nominal 12 V battery are shown in Figure 1. The ideal initial charging current for the fully discharged battery cell voltage under 2.

Once the electrolyte begins to gas rapidly, the terminal voltage will be around At this point, the charging current should be reduced to somewhere between amps per Ah until charging is complete. At the end of charging, terminal voltage may rise to about The example in Figure 5 is of the former type and trickle charges a 12 V battery when the mains is on and provides automatic switchover when the power drops out.

Back-up sup- plies of this sort are only practical where the load on the supply is not too heavy — generally 20W or so. There is a slight element of luck in- volved as to how charged the battery will be at any one time, but the lower limit is usually set so that the equipment will operate for a specified period. This means that actual consumption can be greater than that from time to time provided that consumption falls below the mean level for an equivalent period.

As stated earlier, the major con- sideration with back-up supplies is the power budget of the equipment being sup- plied. If you anticipate the necessity of operating the equipment for periods ex- ceeding, say, eight hours, then a battery of adequate ampere-hour capacity needs to be used. The huge variety of products have been designed to be convenient, thus making themselves necessary.

Or so it seems. There are two common approaches to providing 60 Hz ac power for mains operated appliances: provide square wave drive of the appropriate amplitude, or derive a sinewave or pseudo sinewave supply of appropriate amplitude. Both are fraught with hidden difficulties. A square wave dc-ac inverter has the advantage of simplicity and efficiency — depending somewhat on the design. In- verters generally take two forms: self- excited, usually employing a feedback winding on the transformer, and driven, where an oscillator drives a switching cir- cuit, generally with transformer output.

Where the precise frequency of the ac out- put is unimportant, self-excited inverters are employed. Where a stable 60 Hz out- put is required, a driven inverter is necessary. Lighting is one area where self- excited dc-ac inverters 7 find application. The common tungsten filament incandes- cent light globe is a poor choice for lighting where a dc supply is employed. A 20 W fluorescent tube would provide as much light output as a W incandescent globe!

Those figures are based on 60 Hz ac supply. Fluorescent tubes actually improve in effi- ciency when driven from a higher frequen- cy supply. Figure 3 shows how the light output of a fluorescent tube increases with increasing supply frequency.

Driving the tube from a supply frequency of 10 kHz Fig. This property is exploited in dc- ac square wave inverters for lighting. The circuit of a self-excited inverter driving a fluorescent tube is shown in Figure 4. It ran at around 2 kHz and employed a ferrite-cored transformer. Consumption was 2. An incandes- cent globe to provide a similar light out- put would draw around 10 amps!

When it come to powering Vac- operated equipment or appliances a number of considerations have to be look- ed at. First, will the equipment operate from a square wave supply? The general ar- rangement is shown in Figure 6. A Hz oscillator drives a flip-flop, which drives a pair of HEXFETs connected in push-pull across the secondary of a toroidal transformer.

Battery supply was 24 V. Toroidal transformers per- form much better in this application than conventional types as core losses are lower and primary-to-secondary coupling is generally better. Hence the use of a V winding and not a V winding. The saturation voltage loss in swit- ching devices driving a transformer is an important consideration.

Any further losses only magnify the problem. A square wave ac supply is inherently rich in harmonics. To deliver the same work value as a sine wave supply, the peak output voltage of a square wave dc-ac inverter is generally set at V. When driving a motor or resistive load, the square wave supply will deliver the same amount of power as a sine wave supply; i.

This, unfortunately, is impractical, for the following reasons. Consider this: a sinewave dc-ac in- verter needs to be of the driven type. Hence it generally consists of an oscillator driving a class B power amplifier — usual- ly a push-pull type. Thus a 1 kW dc-ac inverter to run from a 12 V battery would draw in excess of amps at full load! Few batteries available would supply that sort of current for long. With currents of that magnitude, special arrangements have to be made for primary circuit conductors.

A resistance of 5 milliohms 0. The devices used would dissipate something over W at peak load. No load dissipation would probably be in the vicinity of W, which is no mean amount to get rid of. Apart from the weight of a heatsink, consider the weight of a 1 kVA or W transformer assuming a single transformer is used. The problems are reduced somewhat when a much higher dc supply voltage is available. At typical efficiencies, the dc input power is around W, or close to amps cur- rent from the battery.

As you would already appreciate, this brings its own special problems. At this stage, I might point out that an alternator coupled to the motor would provide a more effi- cient energy conversion. To gain, say, four to six hours of operation for a W inverter, you would need a battery system of more than Ah capacity. A more practicable power level for a sinewave dc-ac inverter would be around W. Such an inverter would pull 12 to 15 amps from the battery, a much more manageable figure.

How many appliances do you have rated at less than watts? Very few. The humble electric kettle is rated from 1 kW to 1. Monochrome TV sets, particularly portables, may only con- sume W, but a colour TV may draw three times that or more. Anything more ambitious has a pro- portionately larger consumption. A W dc-ac inverter is best considered where the full output is only required intermit- tently.

Conclusion As can be seen, many factors have to be taken into account when considering ob- taining light and power from a battery supply — whether it be in a back-up ap- plication, for lighting or Vac substitu- tion. The ubiquitous 12 V battery is not up to the job in some instances — in which case higher voltage dc systems are better considered.

Readers wishing to experiment with practical circuits for converting 12 Vdc to Vac, 60 Hz, should contact Hammond Manufacturing, Edinburgh Rd. Ask for information on the series switching transformers. Auto Sprinkler Project! Sound Switch Project! Memory Systems! By BUI Markwick. They bring to mind that hollow boingy twang, like yell- ing down a pipeline. Here are the major drawbacks.

Most amplifiers run out of headroom very quickly. IC2 is the drive circuit for the line. The loss through the line itself is about 40 dB. The sound of the line tends to be rather bright because of the excellent HF response of the current source drive, and a tone con- trol is added after Q8 to allow you to set the treble to suit; cutting the treble also improves the signal-to-noise ratio con- siderably, without seriously muffling the sound.

The final output is a balanced-line type, and a two-conductor output jack is added in case your system is unbalanced. However, it does have the advantage of preventing overload distortion if you set the levels a bit high, or someone leans into a microphone. The CLM should also work in this application. The Line Now as to the line itself: the real piece de resistance in the way of spring lines is the Accutronics 99 system. You can bug your local music store about getting you one of these systems; most places that repair guitar amps should have access to Accutronics parts.

When installing the lines, the input coils should be wired in series, and so should the outputs. Many guitar lines have 8 or 10 ohm lines, and the driver circuitry in the amplifier may be restricted in its headroom. If you have a choice, the input coils should be to ohms, and the output coils to ohms. Mounting The reverb lines and the amplifier will fit nicely into a standard 19 inch rackmount box, as shown in the photograph.

The trouble was, nobody could hear difference as the switch was changed back and forth from stereo to mono. Such is life. If all else fails, you may have to put the transformer in a separate mini- box. There are so many resonances in any reverb system that the output sine amplitude can vary 20 dB within a few Hertz. The easiest way is to send it pro- gram material at a level consistently near 0 VU, and adjust the output trim pot to get the same level out.

Operation Operation is straightforward. Capacitors Cl, 2. C7,14 p C9, 10,26,27 u, 16V electro C Q2,4,8 2N PNP transistor or equiv. The common mode rejection of this amplifier, which is set largely by the matching of R7 to RIO, drops out any noise which has been in- duced on the incoming line; the CMR should be about 40 dB.

IC2 is a constant-current source. The current is set by Ra, and the feedback loops set by R16 and R18 maintain the output current at the proper level regardless of load impedance changes. Q1 and Q2 in- crease the output current capability; if it rises beyond a few milliamps, the voltage drop across R17 will turn on one of the transistors.

IC2b is an inverting amplifier; the resultant out-of-phase signal across the load means an increase in maximum output of 6 dB, or twice. The recovery amplifier is a straightfor- ward compound connection with a gain of about 30 dB. Low frequency rolloff is pro- vided by Cl 5, and also by C6 in the drive amp and prevents the line from producing distortion on large bass amplitudes. After the tone control, a balanced out- put is provided by IC5, with an unbalanced output available at J2. This output is ad- justable for up to 15 dB gain unbalanced, or 21 dB balanced.

IC3 is a full wave rectifier, and sends the rectified signal to peak detector IC4. This IC charges Cl 3 to the peak level of the input signal, and this charge is buffered by IC4b and sent to control transistors Q5 and Q6. This shunts the input signal at Rll. The minimum resistance of the photocell is about ohms, and results in a control range of 25 dB when combined with Rll. If it stays on consistently, the level is set too high. The limiter control takes a bit of ex- perimenting to find the point where limiting begins; an audio source with loud peaks is good for this.

You can then leave the control in this position forever, if you like. The tone control is just set to suit your idea of good treble. How Does it Sound? There are limits to the El Cheapo route, you know. The ob- jections can be reduced if not stilled by minimizing the input level as best you can. Happy reversing!

The amplifier component location. You learn how various systems interact, design your own circuits to perform specific tasks, learn to look for better ways and new ideas. The NRI Circuit Designer is a totally unique instrument with full breadboarding capability, built-in multiple power supplies and multi-function signal generator for circuit test- ing.

Fast, simple connections let you build up prototype circuits, immediately check them out for function or faults. It handles both linear and digital integrated circuits as well as discrete components such as transistors and diodes. Six practical lab units carry you through both the theoretical and practical world of electronic circuit design.

Professional Working Instruments Your course also includes the choice of the professionals It features accurate LCD readout and full por- tability. You also get the famous Tfexas Instru- ments TI scientific calculator to- speed and simplify circuit analysis and design.

Espe- cially written for individual instruc- tion, each lesson covers its subjects fully and thoroughly. But extraneous material is eliminated, language is clear and to the point, organization is logical and effective. No Experience Necessary You need absolutely no electronic experi- ence to be successful with this modern course.

We even include, at no extra charge, the NRI Math Refresher Module, designed to help you brush up on your math and teach you any new concepts you may need. Rush Card for Free Catalog Send the postage-paid card for our free, page catalog with all the facts about this and other NRI electronics courses. Look it over and discover for yourself why only NRI can prepare you so well for your future. If card has been removed, please write to us.

Enroll now in this exciting career program from the leader in electronics training. The best jobs in electronics go to the people who can think and work creatively. And NRI can help you join their company. The First Complete Program of Its Kind This new course starts with the fundamentals and builds from there to prepare you for an electronic career where the growth is. And you learn at home in your spare time, without quitting your job or wasting time, travel, and gas going to night school.

You learn with NRI-developed training methods that combine knowledge with practical experience. Your training includes all these laboratory and professional work- ing instruments. Canada's Persona! Send to Computing Now! Subscription Department, Unit 6, 25 Overlea Blvd.

In this issue, he presents a general guide to choosing the necessary peripherals. Traub The microcomputer is an extremely ver- satile tool capable of an infinite number of personal and business applications. To some people the microcomputer may signify a great word processing system, to others a professional accounting system. Some may see a data base management or telecommunications system, to name only a few. The microcomputer can of course be used in all of these areas, but by itself it is nothing more than a collection of sophisticated micro-electronic com- ponents.

Before the microcomputer can com- municate with the outside world, and thereby perform some functions, there must be some way to feed information in- to the computer input and some way to get the processed information out of the computer output.

If the microcomputer uses diskettes for data storage, a special program called the Disk Operating System or DOS is required. The DOS will look after such things as copying a diskette, copy a file from one diskette onto another, deleting a file from the diskette directory, displaying the diskette direc- tory, and so on. Generally the operating system software is provided with the purchase of a microcomputer.

Input and Output Needs The operating system and the functions it can perform will have to be totally understood in order for successful opera- tion to occur. The degree to which the end user understands the basic operating system and its functions, will determine the ease and speed of operation. User software are the pro- grams, either written or purchased, designed for a particular application such as word processing, data base manage- ment, general ledger etc.

All of the user programs will have to communicate with the outside world at one point or another. An input device can be almost any- thing, depending totally on the applica- tion. A few of the more common input devices include a keyboard, an analogue to digital converter, a modem, a group of environmental sensors, or a point of entry terminal, such as a cash register.

Also, there are a great variety of output devices that can be utilized, again depending on the application. The job for which the microcomputer will ultimately be utilized will determine the peripheral equipment required to satisfy the project. As the peripherals constitute the greatest expense in any system and are necessary to obtain the desired result, it is important to know exactly what type of peripheral is required. If this first basic step is not clearly understood and strictly adhered to, the chance of obtaining even a fraction of the desired result, is at best, poor.

For example, when a printer is re- quired, it is desirable to know exactly what features in a printer are the most im- portant. It could be speed, the letter quali- ty, the cost, graphics, form size, or paper feed type, to name a few. Printers Printers range from simple dot matrix, to sophisticated word processing printers, to large high speed units. For example, where cost is the main factor, there are in- expensive 5x7 dot matrix printers that of- fer a limited but definite use.

These printers have poor letter quality, and do not allow for descenders. A simple function such as underlining text cannot be performed without the ability of the printer to descend below the line. However, these printers are still adequate for computer program printouts and non- critical in-house documentation.

Some of the newer and more expensive dot matrix printers offer very fine graphics and near letter-quality print. Veyrie , L. Zemoura , J. Berjaud , L. Brouchet , M. Dahan , F. Mathe , H. Benahoua , M. DaCosta , I. Serres , V.

Merlet-Dupuy , M. Grigoli , A. Didier , M. Murris , L. Crognier , O. Fourcade , J. Fourcade , T. Krueger , H. Ris , M. Gonzalez , Ph. Jolliet , C. Marcucci , M. Chollet , F. Gronchi , C. Courbon , C. Berutto , O. Manuel , A. Koutsokera , J. Aubert , L. Nicod , S.

Mouraux , E. Bernasconi , C. Pattaroni , B. Marsland , P. Soccal , T. Rochat , L. Hillinger , I. Inci , W. Weder , R. Schuepbach , M. Zalunardo , C. Benden , M. Schuurmans , A. Gaspert , D. Holzmann , N. Schmid , B. Vrugt , A. Fritz , D. Maier , K. Deplanche , D. Koubi , F. Ernst , T. Paprotka , M. Schmitt , B. Wahl , J. Boissel , G. Olivera-Botello , C.

Toussaint , S. Bourgoin-Voillard , M. Benmerad , V. Siroux , R. Slama , C. Auffray , D. Charron , D. Lefaudeux , and J. Bordeaux: J. Jougon, J. Velly; H. Blanchard, C. Brussels: M. Antoine, M. Cappello, M. Ruiz, Y. Sokolow, F. Vanden Eynden, G. Van Nooten; L. Barvais, J. Brimioulle, D. De Backer, J. Engelman, I. Huybrechts, B. Ickx, T. Preiser, T. Tuna, L. Van Obberghe, N. Vancutsem, J. Vincent; P. De Vuyst, I. Etienne, F. Jacobs, C. Knoop, J. Van den Borne, I.

Wellemans; G. Amand, L. Collignon, M. Grenoble: D. Angelescu, O. Chavanon, R. Hacini, A. Pirvu, P. Porcu; P. Albaladejo, C. Bataillard, D. Bedague, E. Briot, M. Casez-Brasseur, D. Colas, G. Dessertaine, M. Durand, G. Francony, A. Hebrard, M. Marino, B. Oummahan, D.

Protar, D. Rehm, S. Robin, M. Rossi-Blancher; C. Augier, P. Bedouch, A. Boignard, H. Bouvaist, A. Briault, B. Camara, J. Claustre, S. Chanoine, M. Dubuc, S. Maurizi, P. Pison, C. Saint-Raymond, N. Wion; C. Lyon: R. Grima, O. Jegaden, J. Maury, F. Tronc, C. Flamens, S. Paulus; J. Mornex, F. Philit, A. Senechal, J. Turquier; D. Gamondes, L. Chalabresse, F. Thivolet-Bejui; C. Barnel, C. Dubois, A. Le Pimpec-Barthes, A. Bel, P. Mordant, P. Achouh; V. Boussaud; R. Guillemain, D.

Bricourt, B. Cholley; V. Marseille: G. Brioude, X. D'Journo, C. Doddoli, P. Thomas, D. Trousse; S. Dizier, M. Leone, L. Papazian, F. Bregeon; A. Basire, B. Coltey, N. Dufeu, H. Dutau, S. Garcia, J. Gaubert, C. Gomez, S. Laroumagne, A. Nieves, L. Picard, M. Reynaud-Gaubert; V. Secq, G. Nantes: O. Baron, P. Lacoste, C. Perigaud, J. Roussel; I. Danner, A. Haloun, A. Magnan, A. Tissot; T.

Lepoivre, M. Treilhaud; K. Brouard, R. Danger, J. Loy, M. Morisset, M. Pain, S. Pares, D. Reboulleau, P. Fabre, E. Fadel, O. Mercier, S. Mussot; F. Stephan, P. Viard; J. Cerrina, P. Dorfmuller, S. Ghigna, Ph. Le Roy Ladurie, J. Le Pavec, V. Thomas de Montpreville; L. Castier, P. Cerceau, P. Augustin, S. Jean-Baptiste, S. Boudinet, P. Montravers; O. Dauriat, G. Mal, A. Marceau, A. Thabut, E. Lhuillier, C.

Dupin, V. Strasbourg: P. Falcoz, G. Massard, N. Santelmo; G. Ajob, O. Collange O. Helms, J. Hentz, A. Roche; B. Bakouboula, T. Degot, A. Dory, S. Hirschi, S. Ohlmann-Caillard, L. Kessler, R. Kessler, A.

Schuller; K. Bennedif, S. Vargas, J. Suresnes: P. Bonnette, A. Chapelier, P. Puyo, E. Sage, J. Bresson, V. Caille, C. Cerf, J. Devaquet, V. Dumans-Nizard, M. Felten, M. Fischler, A. Si Larbi, M. Leguen, L. Ley, N. Liu, G. Trebbia; S. De Miranda, B. Douvry, F. Gonin, D. Grenet, A. Hamid, H. Neveu, F. Parquin, C. Picard, A. Roux, M. Stern; F. Bouillioud, P. Cahen, M.

Colombat, C. Dautricourt, M. Delahousse, B. D'Urso, J. Gravisse, A. Guth, S. Hillaire, P. Honderlick, M. Lequintrec, E. Longchampt, F. Mellot, A. Scherrer, L. Temagoult, L. Tricot; M. Vasse, C. Veyrie, L. Toulouse: J. Berjaud, L. Brouchet, M. Dahan; F. Mathe; H.

Benahoua, M. DaCosta, I. Serres, V. Merlet-Dupuy, M. Grigoli, A. Didier, M. Murris; L. Crognier, O. Lausanne: T. Krueger, H. Ris, M. Gonzalez, Ph. Jolliet, C. Marcucci, M. Chollet, F. Gronchi, C. Courbon, C.

Berutto, O. Manuel, A. Koutsokera, J. Aubert, L. Nicod, S. Mouraux, E. Bernasconi, C. Pattaroni, B. Zurich: S. Hillinger, I. Inci, W. Weder, R. Schuepbach, M. Zalunardo, C. Benden, M. Schuurmans, A. Gaspert, D. Holzmann, N. Schmid, B. Toussaint, S. Bourgoin-Voillard, M. Benmerad, V. Siroux, R. Auffray, D. Charron, D. Lefaudeux, J. Patients underwent transoral or transnasal bronchoscopy. For BAL fluid BALF collection, the bronchoscope was wedged either in the middle lobe or lingula of the allograft and to mL of normal saline were instilled.

Different fractions of collected samples were submitted to cell differential determination, culture-dependent bacterial and fungal detection, and PCR-based detection of viral infection, according to routine clinical procedures. Samples obtained on washing the endoscope with sterile saline prior an examination were prepared following the same procedure and were used as negative control samples. Absolute quantification was performed using the CFX Manager software 2.

The predicted metagenome was exported as KOs for principal coordinate analysis on Bray-Curtis distance, using the cmdscale function in R. All of these KOs were previously reported to be linked to bacterial genomes. Incubation was for 7 days, without medium change. Cell viability was assessed 30 hours following the addition of bacterial mixtures into macrophage-fibroblast cocultures, using a WSTbased colorimetric assay Cell Counting Kit-8, Dojindo Molecular Technologies, Rockville, Md , according to the manufacturer's instructions.

To optimize for maximal matrix deposition, macrophage-fibroblast coculture medium was supplemented with and kDa Ficoll Paraformaldehyde-fixed cells were permeabilized for 10 minutes in 0. All steps were performed at room temperature. A consistent predetermined pattern of 8 images were acquired, both within and across experiments.

The fluorescence area was quantified and cell nuclei were counted with ImageJ version 1. Sponsored Document from. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Soccal , MD, h Benjamin J. Paola M. Benjamin J. Laurent P. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Eric Bernasconi: hc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Background Homeostatic turnover of the extracellular matrix conditions the structure and function of the healthy lung. Objective This study assessed whether the local cross-talk between the pulmonary microbiota and host cells is a key determinant in the control of lower airway remodeling posttransplantation. Methods Microbiota DNA and host total RNA were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages obtained from patients post lung transplantation.

Results We identified 4 host gene expression profiles, among which catabolic remodeling, associated with high expression of metallopeptidase-7, -9, and , diverged from anabolic remodeling linked to maximal thrombospondin and platelet-derived growth factor D expression. Conclusions Host-microbes interplay potentially determines remodeling activities in the transplanted lung, highlighting new therapeutic opportunities to ultimately improve long-term lung transplant outcome.

Key words: Airway remodeling, fibroblasts, macrophages, matrix, microbiota. Graphical abstract. Open in a separate window. Methods Patient sample collection and ethics statement BAL samples were collected during surveillance bronchoscopies carried out during the first 14 months posttransplantation, from October to July in 6 Swiss and French transplantation centers, within the framework of the European project System prediction of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction SysCLAD.

Table I Patient characteristics. Virological investigations ranged from CMV only to more extensive testing, as per case requirement. Extraction of remodeling genes from Gene Ontology database A panel of remodeling-related genes were extracted from Gene Ontology GO database release May using the browser AmiGo 10 version 2. Fig 1. Results Experimental toolkit for determining remodeling gene expression profiles in BAL cells In a previous study, we showed that a majority of BAL samples obtained from lung transplant recipients up to 14 months posttransplantation can be distinguished on the basis of the expression levels of a set of genes involved in inflammation and remodeling.

Four host remodeling gene expression profiles prevail in the transplanted lung To gain further insight into remodeling gene expression profiles posttransplantation, we analyzed by real-time PCR BAL samples obtained from patients between 0. Fig 2. Fig E1. Relation between airway microbiota composition and host remodeling gene profiling We previously reported that the airway microbiota composition varies in concert with BAL cell gene profiling posttransplantation.

Fig 3. Host-microbe associations and the underlying clinical situation The relatively limited follow-up time in our study did not allow us to look for associations between the observed features in host remodeling gene expression or microbiota composition and the onset of chronic rejection.

Fig 4. The constituents of airway microbial communities set the balance between anabolic and catabolic remodeling The identification of anabolic and catabolic gene expression profiles linked to different airway microbiota compositions raised the possibility that the extracellular matrix turnover in the transplanted lung is differentially influenced by the constituents of local bacterial communities.

Fig 5. Fig E2. Discussion The view of the lower airways representing an ecosystem implies that host cells and the constituents of the microbiota vary in a coordinated manner, particularly in the case of a breakdown in local homeostasis. Key messages. Four host remodeling gene expression profiles that align with different bacterial communities prevail in the transplanted lung.

Typical bacterial pathogens that occasionally bloom during the first months posttransplantation appear to promote the degradation of the extracellular matrix, while bacteria belonging to a healthy steady-state microbiota permit fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation and matrix deposition. Acknowledgments We thank M. Geneva: P. Soccal, T. Rochat, L. Fritz, D. Finovatis, Lyon, France: K. Deplanche, D. Ernst, T.

Paprotka, M. Schmitt, B. Novasdicovery, Lyon, France: J. Boissel, G. Methods Patient sample collection Patients underwent transoral or transnasal bronchoscopy. In vitro assessment of matrix deposition To optimize for maximal matrix deposition, macrophage-fibroblast coculture medium was supplemented with and kDa Ficoll Immunostaining, image acquisition, and measurement of fluorescence area Paraformaldehyde-fixed cells were permeabilized for 10 minutes in 0.

References 1. Yusen R. J Heart Lung Transplant. Suwara M. Mechanistic differences between phenotypes of chronic lung allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Transpl Int. Charlson E. Lung-enriched organisms and aberrant bacterial and fungal respiratory microbiota after lung transplant. Hilty M. Disordered microbial communities in asthmatic airways. PLoS One. Huang Y. Airway microbiome dynamics in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Clin Microbiol. Molyneaux P. The role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Bernasconi E. Airway microbiota determines innate cell inflammatory or tissue remodeling profiles in lung transplantation. Pison C. Prediction of chronic lung allograft dysfunction: a systems medicine challenge. Eur Respir J. Stewart S. Revision of the working formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the diagnosis of lung rejection. Carbon S. AmiGO: online access to ontology and annotation data.

Yadava K. Microbiota promotes chronic pulmonary inflammation by enhancing ILA and autoantibodies. Langille M. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene sequences. Nat Biotechnol. Team RDC. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Cao B. Chin Med J Engl ; — Guiot J.

BMC Pulm Med. Ide M. High serum levels of thrombospondin-1 in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Respir Med. Jonigk D. Molecular profiling in lung biopsies of human pulmonary allografts to predict chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Am J Pathol. Pardo A. Up-regulation and profibrotic role of osteopontin in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

PLoS Med. Schnoor M.

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Hex investing schmitt trigger applications manager With your help research will find a cure or control. In a previous study, we showed that a majority of BAL samples obtained from lung transplant recipients up to 14 months posttransplantation can be distinguished on the basis of the expression levels of a set of genes involved in inflammation and remodeling. Sanjay Gangal interviews Stuart Spencer, Sr. CrognierO. A simple rec- tifying and smoothing process will give an erroneous reading and a true RMS-to-DC converter is needed for correct readings.
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